There is no consensus on the scope of the naming convention for different types of IRS. Even a broad description of IRS contracts only includes those whose legs are denominations in the same currency. It is generally accepted that swaps of a similar nature, whose legs are denominated in different currencies, are called cross-currency base swaps. Swaps that are determined on a variable index in one currency, but whose payments are denominations in another currency, are called quantos. For example, a futures contract may promise the delivery of raw materials at an agreed price. In this way, the company is protected when prices rise. You can also draft contracts to protect yourself from changes in exchange rates and interest rates. Banks need to reconcile their income streams with their liabilities. Banks make many fixed-rate mortgages. Since these long-term loans are not repaid for years, banks have to take out short-term loans to pay for day-to-day expenses. These loans have variable interest rates. For this reason, the bank can exchange its fixed-rate payments with a company`s variable-rate payments. Since banks get the best interest rates, they may even find that the company`s payments are higher than what the bank owes for its short-term debt.
This is a win-win situation for the bank. PepsiCo may enter into an interest rate swap for the term of the bond. Under the terms of the agreement, PepsiCo would pay the counterparty an interest rate of 3.2% over the term of the bond. The company would then exchange $75 million for the exchange rate agreed upon at the maturity of the bond and avoid exchange rate fluctuations. To account for credit risk, the now common post-crisis price framework is the multi-curve framework, in which forecast IBOR rates and discount factors differ. Note that the principle of the economic price remains unchanged: the values of the legs are always identical in the introduction. See Financial Economics § Derivative Pricing for a broader context. Here, overnight index swap (OIS) rates are typically used to calculate discount factors, as this index is the standard inclusion in credit support schedules (CSA) to determine the interest rate on collateral for IRS contracts. Since the base tension between LIBOR rates at different maturities increased during the crisis, forecast curves are typically created for each libor grade used in variable-rate derivatives.  II. . .